Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. In case you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of having a miscarriage, you could be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is crucial that it have exactly the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or within an embryo or fetus could cause a woman to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is far more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Most women who experience a miscarriage go on to possess a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas before the miscarriage would have appeared to be just a unique period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. Because of this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is available, it may be the right result for the fetus or it might be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more prone to receive results and the outcomes are usually returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood as well the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the sort of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this eventually me again?”. Most of the time, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a low possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to research the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

pregnancy Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss can help a couple start the emotional healing up process, moving at night question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing can be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their chances of having a successful healthy pregnancy.